Our entire childhood we had been taught that there are three state of matter that is solid , liquid and gas and for many centuries people believed it to be true and sure we did too
But recent studied and research showed us that under extreme conditions like super cool or super hot chambers showed that matter can take more than three number of state.
So how many are there…
Till now there are classical namely solid , liquid , gas , plasma and non-classical or modern state of matter.
So what are these…
Before coming to the non-classical or modern state , let us first discuss about the classical state .
In a solid state, particles are tightly packed together by strong molecular force and have very less room for any movement . Particles of a solid have very low kinetic energy. Solids have a definite shape. They do not take the shape of the container in which they are placed. They also have a fixed volume. The particles of a solid will not compress the solid to a smaller volume.
Here in liquid state, the molecular forces would be weaker, leaving the molecules to move around a bit more but still stay close to one another. They will have more kinetic energy than that of solids. Liquids take the shape of their container in which they are placed in and, like solids, they can’t be compressed into a smaller volume.
In gaseous state particles move around and spread out much more than liquid particles. If it’s in a container, the gas will spread to fill it; if it’s not, the gas will spread out forever. Gas has no definite volume or shape.
The plasma state is the one in which the gases contained inside neon lights, fluorescent tubes and TVs . Though Plasma may not be a common state of matter here on Earth, but it is the most common state of matter in the universe ( it is estimated that 99% of the matter in the observable universe is plasma )
Plasma is a hot ionized gas made up of highly charged particles . Plasma consists of highly charged particles with extremely high kinetic energy. Stars are great example of super-heated balls of plasma.
Now let us discuss about the non-classical or modern state of matter…
It is a state where all of those individual atoms fuse into one object . This is a low energy phase that can only be formed in laboratory conditions and in very cold temperatures close to absolute zero.
it is a state that is achieved by liquids at extreme cold temperature where they are able to flow without friction. A superfluid can flow up the side of an open container and down the outside.
They are same as superfluid and can also flow without friction but also keeping their form or shape.
This is a really hot state of matter like a thousand times hotter than our sun.
It is a phase were quarks( A quark is a fundamental particle which possesses both electric charge and ‘strong’ charge they are subatomic particles believed to be among the fundamental constituents of matter) become free and able to move independently . They are also called nearly perfect fluid.